While this issue is outside of our practice areas and jurisdiction, it is nonetheless noteworthy in illustrating the ever-expanding sources for where information can be found.
The ABA Magazine has a fascinating write-up about arson and fire science that has been called into question by subsequent research. And while it is freeing long-convicted people from jail, some fire investigators are reluctant to move past the outdated science.
For more information about Han Tak Lee’s appeal that freed him from prison after 25 years for allegedly setting a fire that killed his daughter, look here.
This post was authored by Trippe Fried, Esq., and appeared at http://www.sourcedgeneralcounsel.com/news/2015/8/16/its-like-the-plague-why-entrepreneurs-should-avoid-legalzoom.
Though LegalZoom purportedly offers a low-cost alternative for routine legal matters, in reality it sells only one thing: A false sense of security. And let’s dispense at the outset with the myth that it is self-serving for a business lawyer to be critical of an incorporation service. There is usually more to be made in attorneys’ fees helping clients clean up the messes LegalZoom (or Clerky, or the like) leave behind than handling routine incorporations. But it still needs to be stressed: LegalZoom’s “why use a lawyer when you don’t need one” logic is disingenuous, misleading, and potentially very costly.
You don’t need a lawyer, accountant, or service to incorporate. Anyone can do it by visiting the official government website of the jurisdiction of formation. Some states like New York and New Jersey offer self-explanatory online filing; others like Delaware and California provide easy to complete forms that you submit by mail. Follow the instructions and . . . Voila! . . . you’re business is incorporated.
A buyer entered into to a contract to purchase a penthouse co-op apartment for $27.5 million. Part of the unit being purchased included a terrace, which was to be for the buyer’s exclusive use. Between contract and closing, this exclusive use was questioned as the board intended to convert the roof to a common area and provide access to the roof through the penthouse terrace. Obviously, the buyer would not agree to that invasion of privacy necessary for roof access. The board provided conflicting authorizations and plan drawings, and had to be compelled to provide the co-op plans. The buyer informed the seller that it was canceling the contract and demanded the return of its down payment. The board then withdrew its demand for terrace access but refused to provide an unqualified statement that the roof was not common area, that no access would be provided for the terrace or that the board would not in the future raise this issue. Nonetheless, the seller refused to return the downpayment, claiming that the buyer was getting the co-op as described in the contract. The buyer disagreed and refused to close. Litigation followed over the $2.7 million downpayment. The trial court decided that the buyer’s failure to appear at the closing and see what plan was delivered was a breach, and refused to direct the return of the downpayment.
The appellate court disagreed, and found that the seller’s inability to provide an unqualified promise by the board not to convert the roof to a common area and allow the buyer private and exclusive use of the terrace supported a finding that the seller was unable to deliver the apartment as promised. The Court seemed unimpressed by the board’s qualified promise not to interfere, given the board’s prior conduct, and the buyer’s need to interact with the board on some regular basis. The appellate court was concerned that a fight would erupt in the future and the Buyer should not be compelled to buy a “problem” property. All of this, supported the buyer’s right to rescind the purchase contract.
Pastor v. DeGaetano, First Dept. 2015
Landlord and Tenant entered into a long-term commercial lease. After the Tenant vacated, Landlord terminated the lease, and sued to recover legal possession of the space and for rents that were then past due and owing. Landlord won that lawsuit. Thereafter, the Landlord commenced a second action seeking the amount that the Landlord would have collected assuming the completion of the full lease term.
The Court of Appeals confirmed the Landlord’s attempt to recover that rent, but held that the Landlord could not recover more than the value of the lease. Because the lease allowed the Landlord to hold possession of the space and accelerate and collect the not discounted rent that would otherwise become due over the term of the lease, the Court determined that a hearing had to be held to decide if that amount, given that the Landlord had relet the space, was disproportionate to the Landlord’s actual loss, even though the Landlord had possession but no duty to mitigate.
172 Van Duzer Realty Corp v. Globe Alumni Student Assistance Association, Inc.
As we discussed on this blog some time ago, an artist’s freedom of expression may trump an individual’s right to privacy. This issue has again reached the courts and this principle has been reaffirmed.
Defendant Arne Svenson surreptitiously photographed the residents of a neighboring building through its glass facade. After a year of this conduct, Svenson exhibited these photos in a gallery, including photos of private scenes, bragging that the subjects did not know they were being photographed. Plaintiffs objected, especially because some of the children that were photographed were identifiable. Svenson agreed to remove one of the photos, but not all of them. As time went on and these photos became public knowledge, plaintiffs sued Svenson, alleging invasion of privacy, among other claims. Svenson defended himself by claiming that the photographs were protected by the First Amendment. The lower court agreed, finding that the photographs were not just a business but a form of art. The family appealed.
The First Department traced the statutory background to the right to privacy law. The court noted that the broad language of the statute prohibited the use of one’s ‘”name, portrait, picture or voice'” in advertising or trade. The Court explained that the term “advertising or trade” was drafted specifically to avoid running afoul of the First Amendment, which protects news or issues impacting the public. Those exceptions, wrote the court, are also extended to items protected under the First Amendment, including artistic expression. The only practical limitations are found where a photo that was not newsworthy was sold under the guise of something newsworthy or of importance to the public, or where the relationship between the expression and the subject of the image bore no reasonable connection.
In late December 2013, new laws were put in place addressing non-profits. While we do not have a significant non-profit practice, we are often asked about issues relating to non-profits. To that end, here is a link to a more robust discussion of the Nonprofit Revitalization Act of 2013.